__Mûtsipsa'__

This is an outline of the language of the Mûtsinamtsys. Also included is a brief history and overview of their culture's work on philosophy, which has influenced many other civilisations throughout the islands.

__Contents__

Introduction
  History
Phonology
  Phonemic Inventory
  Allophones
  Orthography
  Prosody
Morphosyntax
  Nominal Morphology
  Adjectives
  Adverbs
  Pronouns
  Verbal Morphology
    Inflections for Case and Aspect
      Internal Sandhi
      Regular Stems
      Thematic Stems
      Infixing Stems
      Thematic Infixing Stems
    Moods
    Verb Clitics
    Negating
  Word Order
  Copula
  Forming Questions
  Conjunctions
  Passive Sentences
  Serial Verbs
  Locative Phrases
Lexical Issues
  Dramatic Terms from Máotatşl
  A history of Mûtsinamtsys Philosophy
Sample Texts
  The North Wind and the Sun
  The Wolf and the Goat
The Lexicon
  Nouns
    Class I Nouns
    Class II Nouns
    Class III Nouns
    Class IV Nouns
    Class V Nouns
    Class VI Nouns
    Class VII Nouns
    Irregular Nouns
  Adjectives
  Verbs
    Regular Verb Stems
    Thematic Verb Stems
      Thematic /a/ Stems
      Thematic /i/ Stems
      Thematic /u/ Stems
    Infixing Verb Stems
    Thematic Infixing Verb Stems

__Introduction__

Mûtsipsa' is spoken by the Mûtsinamtsys, who live on two islands near a large continent. They have good relations with a nearby tribe, the Katuña, and also frequent contact with the other island civilisations.

__History__

The Mûtsipsa' words in the following histories ignore any linguistic changes that may have happened - that is, all words are in Modern Mûtsipsa'.

Mûtsinamtsys arrived on Ke'idû'ûs'as, a large island, and established themselves there.
Exploration revealed the presence of 3 nearby islands, and one distant one. Settlers were sent to the nearest one (dubbed Dûkejdih) and, in accordance with the sacred principle of 'itesah ("good comparison", or "balance"), settlers were also sent to the farthest one (dubbed Duutkejdih).
The settlement on Dûkejdih found themselves having to share the island's resources with a group of natives calling themselves the Takuña. While the leaders of both groups were cordial and relatively friendly, the individual tribes are far from friendly. There was intense competition between all tribes (no matter what race), that often turned into violence.
Meanwhile, explorers from Ke'idû'ûs'as began to investigate the other two islands, called Nin Dûke'i and Ttûke'i. Nin Dûke, a small, fertile, round island, was a thriving Takuña colony. The Takuña welcomed the explorers and show them great hospitality. Explorers to the significantly larger island Ttûke'i (it's actually a continent) discover yet more Takuña, likewise just as welcoming. This was the beginning of an excellent relationship between the Takuña and the Mûtsinamtsys - except, of course, on Dûkejdih, where they are competing.
The conflict on Dûkejdih reaches a climax when, after many natural resources and populations being significantly depleted, an earthquake strikes and sinks over half of the island. There were a mere 2 Takuña villages left, and only a handful of Mûtsinamtsys survivors.
In response to this, Takuña leaders from Ttûke'i, Nin Dûke'i, and the remains of Dûkejdih meet with Mûtsinamtsys leaders in Ke'idû'ûs'as. The general consensus was that the earthquake was a punishment from the gods, for their violent behaviour to each other. They reached an agreement to respect each other's territory.
A regular trade between the Mûtsinamtsys began, but more important than the trade of materials came the trade of ideas - both cultures had much to offer the others in the ways of philosophy and sciences.

Thus begins the golden age, so to speak.

(The name Ttûke'i is generally superseded by the more popular name Siixtaguna. The Takuña name for Nin Dûke'i is Awsákuti, but the Mûtsipsa' name remains the same.)

__Phonology__

Mûtsipsa' is a beautiful, melodic language, with some fun consonant clusters occasionally to keep things interesting. It has a pitch accent.

__Phonemic Inventory__

Vowels
/i, y, ɯ, u, e, o, a/

long vowels:
/iː, yː, ɯː, uː/

diphthongs:
/iy/

/ɯ/ is represented by <û>, long vowels are represented by a doubling, e.g. <ii>, <ûû>. (For those unsure, [ɯ] is an unrounded [u].)

Consonants:
LabialDentalAlveolarPalatalVelarGlottal
Stoppt dk g'
Affricatets
Fricativefsxh
Nasalmnm
Approximantjw

It should be noted that /m/ is a labio-velar nasal, a [m] and [ŋ] articulated at the same time. I transcribe it as because it is easier that way, and also [m] is one of its allophones.
Also, note that /w/ is in fact a purely velar approximant [ɰ], much like in Mohawk.

Double consonants are read twice, e.g. amma is am.ma. Final ones are included in the first syllable of the following word.

Mûtsipsa' words have a basic syllable structure of:
(C)(C)V(C)(C)
However, when the vowel is long, there can only be one consonant in the syllable onset (i.e. CVC).
These rules are not confirmed 100%, but they're reasonably accurate. There are some more complex rules governing what an initial consonant cluster can consist of, but they're long, complex, and flexible.
In initial /tt/ and /tts/, the first /t/ is pronounced only as part of the preceding syllable, when present. Otherwise, it is silent.

__Allophones__

/x/ is velar [x], with the rare allophone of uvular [χ] occurring unpredictably.
The voiceless plosives are aspirated syllable-initially. /ts/ is likewise aspirated.
/p, t, k, ts, f, s, x, h/ are all voiced when following a voiced consonant.
/m/ is [m] word-initially and after consonants, [w] when preceding /j/ or /w/, and [m_ŋ] (that is, a coarticulated labio-velar nasal) elsewhere.
The alveolar consonants /t, n/ will assimilate to dental articulation before a dental consonant.
/i, y, û, u, e, o, a, iy/ are realised as [i, y, ɯ, u, e, o, ɐ, iy] when stressed, and [ɪ, ʏ, ʊ˒, ʊ, ɜ, ɔ, ə, ɪʏ] when unstressed. [ʊ˒] is a less rounded [ʊ] - essentially a lax [ɯ]. It could also be transcribed as [ɯ̞_A]. /iː, yː, ûː, uː/ are always [iː, yː, ɯː, uː].
/a/ is realised as [a] when the vowel of the following syllable is front and unrounded, and as [ɑ] when the vowel of the following syllable is back and unrounded. It is [ɶ] or [ɑ] when the vowel of the following syllable is rounded front or back, respectively. This rule only applies within words - i.e. a final unstressed /a/ is always [ə], no matter what the first vowel in the next word is, and a final stressed /a/ is always [ɐ].

__Orthography__

Mûtsipsa' is written with an adapted version of the Katuña script. This is not relevant to our purposes here, but suffice to say it is an abugida, much like Devanagari.

__Prosody__

Words are composed of syllables, either "heavy" or "light" (or "long" and "short"). Heavy syllables are 2 morae of length, light ones are 1 mora of length. Hence a 2-syllable word where both syllables are heavy would take twice as long to say if the syllables were both light.

Light syllables are those of a CV (or VC) structure, where V is a short vowel. It must be borne in mind that /ts/ acts as a single phoneme, hence /tsi/ would be a light syllable. Also, any vowel (of any length) on its own (for example /a/ or /uu/ or /iy/) is a light syllable.
A heavy syllable is anything else: CV with a long vowel or diphthong, or CCV, or CVC - anything else.
e.g.
iyjotsystsa ("dogs", in case you're interested)
iy.jo.sys.tsa
short short long short

Note: syllables like ttsi are considered light syllables, as the first /t/ is usually silent, and when it is pronounced, it is part of the preceding syllable.

Primary stress goes on the first heavy syllable, and secondary on the third heavy syllable. If there is no third heavy syllable, the secondary stress goes to the second heavy syllable. If there is only one heavy syllable, then there is no secondary stress. If there are no heavy syllables at all, the stress goes on the penultimate syllable.

Mûtsipsa' has a pitch accent to all of its words. It is easily predictable, but governed by reasonably complex rules.

I will be using notation where 5 is a high pitch, 3 mid, and 1 low.
There is a basic 52 structure across words.
In one mora words, due to the length, there is a 42 tone:
ni42

If 2 morae, 52:
he5.'i2
hûû52

If 3 morae, 532:
5.ke3.'i2

If 4 morae, 5321:
5.tsi3.tû2.'a1

At the fifth mora, the tone levels out to 3 and stays at 3 for any following morae:
ke5.'i3.dû2.'ûs13.'as3

That's simple enough - but there is tonal sandhi between words and across phrases. It's easy to express this in a table, with the tones of the first word being on the side and the tones of the second word on top. A plus after a series of tones indicates "and any following 3s". These unmarked 3s, if present, will always be 3s.

52 (and 42)532532153213532133+
5252.4152.43252.432152.4321352.432133+
4141.4141.54242.432142.4321342.432133+
42as 41
532533.42532.432532.4321532.43212534.532233+
432433.42432.432432.4321432.43212434.532233+
533as 532
542543.42532.432532.4321532.43212544.532233+
53215322.425322.4325321.52115321.521125322.432233+
43214322.424322.4324321.52114321.521124322.432233+
52115212.425212.4325211.52115211.521125211.532233+
5321353213.4253223.53354323.432154323.4321254323.432123+
4321343213.4243223.53343223.432143223.4321243223.432123+
4321243213.4243213.53343212.432143212.4321243212.432123+
5211252113.4252123.53353223.432153223.4321253223.432123+
532133+532133+.52532133+.532532133+.5321532133+.53213532132+.122134+
432133+432133+.52432133+.532432133+.5321432133+.53213432132+.122134+
532233+532233+.52532233+.532532233+.5321532233+.53213532232+.122134+
432233+432233+.52432233+.532432233+.5321432233+.53213432232+.122134+
432123+432123+.52432123+.532432123+.5321432123+.53213432122+.122134+
122134+122134+.52122134+.532122134+.5321122134+.53213122134+.122134+

How to use the table:
Let's take the phrase he'i pwu'ûs nims, "I am a fish".
It consists of 2 morae, 4 morae, and then 2 again. So this gives us:
he5.'i2 pwu53.'ûs21 nims52
So now we take the tones of the first word, 52, and the tones of the second word, 5321. We go along the top to find the first set of tones, and look down to find the second set. The table gives us 52.4321. Apply, and:
he5.'i2 pwu43.'ûs21 nims52
Now we shall take pwu'ûs and nims; 4321 and 52, which from the table gives us 4322.42. Apply, and:
he5.'i2 pwu43.'ûs2 nims42
Hey presto, tonal sandhi is done.

__Morphosyntax__

I'm dealing with the morphology and syntax in the same section as they often overlap. It's basically easier this way.

__Nominal Morphology__

Mûtsipsa' has five cases: Nominative, Instrumental, Accusative, Dative, and Benefactive.
Nominative is used to mark the subject of a clause, or the of a passive sentence.
Instrumental is used to mark the means or instrument of an action. It also marks the subject of a passive sentence (but only when placed after the verb).
Accusative is used to mark the direct of a clause.
Dative is used to mark the indirect of a clause.
Benefactive is used to mark the beneficiary of an action. As such, it can stand for the subject, direct , indirect object, or even as an adjunct. It can also be the subject of a passive sentence when it follows directly after the verb.

Mûtsipsa' has two numbers: singluar and plural. Plural is only used to explicitly mark number: when plurality is implied or stated outright through other means (such as context, numbers, semantics, etc), there is no need to mark for plural. Plural is also used, however, as a hyperbolic emphasiser on a singular noun.

There are 7 noun classes, with various declensions.

NominativeInstrumentalAccusativeDativeBenefactive
Class Imûsntsa
Class IIwmmwûsmnmtsa
Class III'iwwûsntsa
Class IVhmhûsntsa
Class V*See belew
Class VI**'iw'ûsntsa
Class VIIawowawûsonotsa

* Class V Nouns decline just as Class I, but there is a vowel shift in the final vowel of the root for the Instrumental, Dative, and Benefactive cases. If the final vowel is /a/, it shifts to /o/. If the final vowel is /e/ or /i/, it shifts to /y/. So kemma, "man", in the benefactive is kemmotsa; and tse, "forest", in the instrumental is tsyw. No other final vowels occur in these nouns.

** Class VI Nouns also experience a vowel shift in the last vowel of the root for the Instrumental, Dative, and Benefactive cases. Long and short /u/ shifts to long and short /û/. /a, e/ will shift to /e, ej/ respectively.

To pluralise, suffix with -tsys, and then inflect like a Class I noun.

There is one irregular noun in Mûtsipsa': i, "oil". Its forms are:
NominativeInstrumentalAccusativeDativeBenefactive
Singulariiywiiwûsiyniytsa
Pluraliytsysiytsysmiytsysûsiytsysniytsystsa

Some nouns also have irregular forms, for example pah, "sand", which is a regular Class I Noun, except its accusative form is phûs (and not *pahûs as one would expect). Such irregularities are noted in the lexicon.

__Adjectives__

Adjectives must agree in case and number with their referant noun. They will take the same inflection that their noun takes. If this creates vowels in hiatus, they are separated with a glottal stop. If the referant noun is an irregular inflection, just use the standard inflection for that noun class. Adjectives usually precede the referant noun, but due to their inflection they can often be placed anywhere in a clause.

pa'aw hjonaw
beautiful.NOM flower.NOM
a beautiful flower

Adjectives can be emphasised with ky, placed before it.

ky pa'aw hjonaw
very beautiful.NOM flower.NOM
a really beautiful flower

Another use of ky is comparatives. The noun you are comparing with will be in the dative, so it will look like this:
ky adj.NOM noun1.NOM noun2.DAT
Which means, "noun1 is more adj than noun2". The adjective and noun don't need to be in the nominative case.
When there is no other noun to be compared to (for example, when stating that something is just generally stronger), or it is inferred, simply use the dative form of "it", niin.

__Adverbs__

Adverbs are formed from the same roots as adjectives. Basically, an adverb is an adjective without a case ending, and placed right before the verb. But due to its lack of case ending, it is known to be an adverb, and so can technically go anywhere in the clause. However, beware, as adjectives agreeing with nominative Class I Nouns will also not have any case ending.

__Pronouns__

There is no separate class of pronouns. There are, however, some nouns which can be used as pronouns.

heI (class VI)
tuuyou (class IV)
siithis (class III)
sethat (class III)
suuwho (class VI)

These next ones can be used on their own to mean "all the people", "someone" etc, or agreeing with another noun to express "all the children" or "few dogs" etc. Once they have been used with another noun, they can act like a 3rd person referant for that noun.

sesowoall, everyone (class IV)
pwunmany (people) (class I)
piiwufew (people) (class IV)
gimsuhsome (person) (class I)
sesaother (person) (class III)

gimsuh muuhuhûs si'
some.NOM mushroom.ACC eat.PAST
someone ate a mushroom

Sesa'i txaw siisysi'. Tse jii'i sesawûs û.
some.NOM child.NOM IMPF.play.PAST. Then it.NOM some.ACC kick.PAST
Some child was playing. Then he (someone else) kicked him (the child)

A note on sesowo, pwun, and piiwu: since these cannot be used in a singular sense, they always agree with plural nouns. However, they are never inflected for plural, as the plurality is implied within their form.

There is also the highly irregular pronoun jii'i, "it". It declines thus, in both singular and plural:
Nominative jii'i
Instrumental mew
Accusative wuuwûs
Dative niin
Benefactive tsetsa

__Verbal Morphology__

Mûtsipsa' verbal morphology has been described as "rich", but it is probably better described as "confusing".

Mûtsipsa' has three tenses, three aspects, and several states that could be described as "moods". There is a simple past tense, a simple present tense, and a simple future tense. The aspects are perfective (meaning an action is completed), imperfective (meaning an action is underway), and atelic (meaning an action has failed to achieve its intended purpose).

__Inflections for Tense and Aspect__

Verbs in Mûtsipsa' fall into four rather complex conjugation categories. This is arbritary, like the noun classes, and cannot be determined by analysis of the root. These categories are Regular, Thematic, Infixing, and the relatively rare Thematic Infixing.

__Internal Sandhi__

When applying a prefix or suffix, note should be taken of internal sandhi which can alter the affix or the edges of the root. There are two rules here - intervocalic /m, p, t, k, '/ become /w, f, t, k, h/, and vowels in hiatus are separated by a glottal stop.
Example:
prefixing tutsuh with tuu, we get tuusutsuh
prefixing ys with wii, we get wii'ys
Remember, these rules only apply to verbal affixes and their immediate environment.

__Regular Stems__

The regular conjugation forms the basis of the conjugation pattern for all the conjugations. It inflects like so:
PastPresentFuture
ROOTROOT+msROOT+poh
This is subject to several qualifications, however. These are quite complex.
For present tense:


For future tense:

Examples:
the root so'uus, "harvest"
past tense so'uus, present tense so'uuns, future tense so'uuspoh
the root kanta, "follow, obey"
past tense kanta, present tense kantams, future tense kantafoh
the root mûsa', "disagree, argue"
past tense mûsa', present tense mûsams, future tense mûsapoh

Now for the aspects, which are even more fun.
A verb by default has perfective aspect.
For atelic aspect, the first vowel in the word undergoes a vowel shift.

Examples:
the root so'uus, "harvest"
past tense perfective so'uus, past tense atelic sy'uus, future tense atelic sy'uuspoh
the root iinda, "lead, herd"
past tense perfective iinda, past tense atelic jiinda, future tense atelic jiindafoh
the root osu', "prod, stab"
past tense perfective osu', past tense atelic wesu', future tense atelic wesupoh
the root jotsu', "cover, drape, surround"
past tense perfective jotsu', past tense atelic iytsu', future tense atelic iytsupoh

For imperfective aspect, provided that the word does not begin with /ma, pa, ta, ka, 'a/, has the following change: the first consonant and vowel are reduplicated, with the vowel undergoing a similar shift to that of the atelic above. There are some slight differences to the vowel shift, however:


If, however, the word begins with /ma, pa, ta, ka, 'a/, this is then changed to /mwa, pfa, tsa, kxa, 'ha/ respectively. Essentially they become affricates (although /mw/ isn't really much of an affricate, I suppose).
  • The cluser /jo/ acts altogether differently (again), and shifts to /je/ (not /iy/).
  • Examples:
    the root so'uus, "harvest"
    past tense imperfective seso'uus, present tense imperfective seso'uuns
    the root kanta, "follow, obey"
    past tense imperfective kxanta, future tense imperfective kxantafoh
    the root nysa', "give"
    past tense atelic nyysa', past tense imperfective niinysa'
    the root jotsu', "cover, drape, surround"
    present tense atelic iytsuns, past tense imperfective jejotsu'

    A fully conjugated verb:
    so'uus, "harvest"
    PerfectiveAtelicImperfective
    Pastso'uussy'uusseso'uus
    Presentso'uunssy'uunsseso'uuns
    Futureso'uuspohsy'uuspohseso'uuspoh

    A note for ni, "do". This verb is slightly irregular, but only in its pronunciation. Technically the past tense perfective and atelic forms are ni and nii, but whenever there is a nearby syllable that could adopt an /n/ as part of the consonant cluster, the past tense perfective becomes simply n. In these same environments does the atelic become ni. This rule only applies when ni is being used to mean "do" (or one of its many auxiliary meanings), and not when it is being used to mean "grow, develop", its homonym.

    __Thematic Stems__

    These are just the same as regular verbs, with the exception that instead of removing the final consonant when inflecting, a thematic vowel is inserted between the stem and the inflection. There are 3 types of Thematic vowel Stems; /a, i, u/.

    Examples:
    the root hat, "walk, travel", thematic vowel /a/
    past tense perfective hat, present tense perfective hatams, future tense imperfective hehatafoh
    the root sof, "lift", thematic vowel /u/
    past tense perfective sof, present tense perfective sofuns, future tense imperfective sesofufoh

    A fully conjugated verb:
    nit, "desire, want", thematic vowel /i/
    PerfectiveAtelicImperfective
    Pastnitniitniinit
    Presentnitimsniitimsniinitims
    Futurenitifohniitifohniinitifoh

    __Infixing Stems__

    For tense, these verbs inflect like the regular stems.
    These verbs can not have atelic aspect (with the exception of tja, an irregular verb that will be dealt with later). If you wish to express a failure to achieve the intended result, then the auxiliary verb ni, is placed before the verb, in the atelic aspect. It must agree with the main verb in tense (so possible forms are ni, niims, niifoh).
    For imperfective aspect, it's a whole lot more complicated. Every infixing verb has some sort of initial consonant cluster (or /ts/). Imperfective aspect is formed by placing an infix, usually of the form VCV, between the consonants (or in the case of /ts/, breaking up the affricate into a separate plosive and fricative and infixing between them).
    What particular infix to use depends on the verb, and is indicated in the lexicon. If the consonant of the infix is a plosive, then the first consonant of the root should become voiced.

    Examples:
    the root kfa', "swallow", imperfective infix /-xa-/
    perfective past kfa', imperfective past kxafa'
    the root tsafi', "swim", imperfective infix /-eta-/
    perfective past tsafi', imperfective past detasafi' (note the voicing of the initial consonant, due to a plosive being present in the infix)

    A note on tej. This verb, meaning "drop", is an irregular infixing verb, in that it does inflect for the atelic. It does so in a way that no other verb does: it takes the infix /-ej-/ between the first two consonants (hence past tense atelic tejja). Otherwise it is the same as any other infixing verb, with /-ejta-/ as the imperfective infix.

    A fully conjugated verb:
    kfa', "swallow", infix /-xa-/
    PerfectiveImperfective
    Pastkfa'kxafa'
    Presentkfamskxafams
    Futurekfapohkxafapoh

    __Thematic Infixing Stems__

    As the name suggests, these verbs both take a thematic vowel when inflecting for present or future tense, and take an infix when inflecting for imperfective. There is no atelic aspect.

    A fully conjugated verb:
    khes, "trip, fall, slip", infix /-xa-/, thematic vowel /i/
    PerfectiveImperfective
    Pastkheskxahes
    Presentkhesimskxahesims
    Futurekhesifohkxahesifoh

    __Moods__

    The moods are, by and large, formed by using ni, "do", as an auxiliary verb.

    For subjunctive mood, use the auxiliary verb ni in the future tense. Subjunctive mood means something that is hypothetical or not confirmed to be true. It must agree with the main verb in terms of aspect: so nifoh for perfective, niifoh for atelic, and niinifoh for imperfective.

    For indirective mood, use the special form niiniifoh (it looks like the future tense imperfect form of ni, but it's slightly different). It is placed before a verb to indicate that the verb is being performed half-heartedly, without any real direction or ambition.

    A habitual mood can be formed with the particle hejha, which is normally placed before the verb, but technically can appear anywhere in a sentence.

    While not technically a mood, the particle kuu' can be placed before the verb (and any mood particles) to emphasise a scepticism on the part of the speaker. This is different from the uncertainty clitic (see next section), in that with scepticism, the speaker is politely challenging what someone else said, or expressing the views of another the truth value of which the speaker is not wholly satisfied with.

    __Verb Clitics__

    There are four clitics that optionally affix to a verb, adding extra meaning to the intention of the statement. While they act morphologically and syntactically as clitics (ie they come right after the verb, nothing can come between them and the verb), they are phonologically separate words (ie they have stress and prosody features separate to the verb).

    sûû'contradiction, strong assertion
    'ihsubmission, resignation
    myhvagueness
    tuusa'uncertainty

    The use of these can be illustrated by means of the following sample sentence:
    jii'i wuuwûs datawûs nata
    it.NOM it.ACC father.ACC betray.PAST
    he betrayed his father

    jii'i wuuwûs datawûs nata sûû'"No, he betrayed his father!"
    jii'i wuuwûs datawûs nata 'ih"Okay, fine, he betrayed his father..."
    jii'i wuuwûs datawûs nata myh"He kinda, like, betrayed his father."
    jii'i wuuwûs datawûs nata tuusa'"I think he betrayed his father..."

    __Negating__

    The verb is negated by simply putting phu' after it (and any clitics). This particle can also be used to negate moods:
    jii'i hejha muhyms
    it.NOM habitual loiter.PRES
    he frequently wastes time

    jii'i hejha muhyms phu'
    it.NOM habitual loiter.PRES not
    he frequently doesn't waste time (i.e., his not-time-wasting is indeed habitual)

    jii'i hejha phu' muhyms
    it.NOM habitual not loiter.PRES
    he doesn't frequently waste time (i.e., he does waste time, but not on a regular basis)

    jii'i muhyms phu'
    it.NOM habitual not
    he doesn't waste time (this would be the normal way of expressing the opposite of the first example)

    jii'i hejha phu' muhyms phu'
    it.NOM habitual not loiter.PRES not
    he does not waste time frequently (this is the explicit negative, only really used when the habitual aspect is the subject of dispute or something)

    __Word Order__

    A general SOV structure is followed, but due to the cases the word order is freed up somewhat. The verb must come last, with one exception; the passive sentence, which is explained below.

    __Copula__

    The copula that connects noun and adjective, or noun and noun, is ni, "do".
    he'i pwu'ûs nims, "I am a fish".

    __Forming questions__

    There are two words we use to form questions in Mûtsipsa': siifi' and suu.
    Suu is a conventional interogative pronoun. It inflects like a class VI noun (.'i, .w, .'ûs, .n, .tsa declension), and any clause it is used in becomes a question. To emphasise the questioning nature of a sentence it can be put at the start of a clause.
    Siifi' acts more like an particle, and precedes the word is it questioning. For example, before a verb it could mean "how does he VERB", and before a noun it would mean "what NOUN". When it is placed at the beginning of a clause, however, it is indicating that a simple yes/no answer is requested.

    __Conjunctions__

    "And" is used to combine nouns, or clauses. When combining clauses it sits neatly betwixt the two clauses, and is in the nominative case. It must agree in case with the nouns it is combining, and usually comes after them ("cart horse and" instead of "cart and horse"). Other syntactic variations are available, due to it agreeing in case with both of its nouns.
    hû'iand.NOM
    hûwand.INS
    hu'ûsand.ACC
    hûnand.DAT
    hûtsaand.BEN

    Other conjunctions used to combine clauses:
    tsaor
    py'o'but
    'ibecause
    'wu'if
    tsethen
    te'so that
    ubut (strong, emphatic, contradictory)

    Since, technically, only "and" can be used to combine nouns (the other conjunctions combine clauses), there are interesting workarounds to this problem. To express something like "the dog or the wolf ate the meat", it would first be rendered as "[the dog ate the meat] or [the wolf ate the meat]". But then, due to the pro-drop nature of Mûtsipsa', it would be changed to "the dog ate the meat or the wolf". Then "or" would go after "wolf", in analogy with "and", giving us the final product (remembering the SOV word order) of "the dog the meat ate the wolf or":
    iyja juuhûs si' uuhuun tsa
    The other conjunctions can be used in a similar manner.

    __Possessives__

    To indicate possession, simply put the possessor in the same case as the possessee, and place it before it.

    tuuh mwa'i
    you.NOM mother.NOM
    your mother

    he'i hu'ytsimûs hy'uunûs siisis
    I.NOM fox.ACC neck.ACC IMPF.clean.PAST
    I was cleaning the fox's neck

    __Passive Sentences__

    For passive sentences, an interesting construction is used. The subject is put into instrumental case, and the into nominative. The instrumental has to be placed after the verb (otherwise it returns to its simple instrumental meaning).
    When the subject of the sentence would normally be in benefactive case, this can also be put after the verb to indicate a passive sentence.

    ttsih nynohtsysûs yii'iindans
    man.NOM cattle.PL.ACC IMPF.lead.PRES
    the man is leading the cattle

    nynohtsys yii'iindans ttsim
    cattle.PL.NOM IMPF.lead.PRES man.INS
    the cattle are being lead by the man

    jusitsisn he'ûs tsanûs to'iimtsysûs kejpunspoh
    raven.BEN I.ACC sister.ACC chickpea.PL.ACC steal.FUTR
    A raven will steal my sister's chickpeas

    he'i tsan to'iimtsys kejpunspoh jusitsisn
    I.NOM sister.NOM chickpea.PL.NOM steal.FUTR raven.BEN
    my sister's chickpeas will be stolen by a raven

    __Serial Verbs__

    One topic can take many comments. For example:

    he'i enamm tsfuhpoh, tsuhkinpoh, sipoh
    I.NOM fruit.ACC pick.FUTR, cut.FUTR, eat.FUTR
    I will pick a fruit, cut it, and eat it

    Since these other clauses share the same topic, no conjunctions are required.

    __Locative Phrases__

    Postpositions are placed after nouns to create locative phrases, that deal with both time and space (dependant on the nature of the noun). The noun is normally in accusative case. However, instrumental can be used to indicate action from a location, and dative to indicate action to a location. The nominative can be used to express action through said location. The benefactive is only used in locative phrases to emphasise that the noun is benefitting; usually the state of motion is implied or already mentioned.

    tsuuwawûs hafa'
    stone.ACC behind
    behind the rock

    dûûw 'û tiihen pitih tû'iihn
    sea.INS in sky.NOM under belly.DAT 'û
    from the sea via under the sky to the belly

    hafa'behind
    he'in front of
    kimmu'beside
    seto the right of
    siito the left of
    'asat, by
    'y'outside of
    in
    pitihunder
    'unon

    __Lexical Issues__

    __Dramatic Terms from Máotatşl__

    Mûtsinamtsys scholars have become very interested in Máotatşl drama and literary analysis, and use many of their terms when discussing literature. In particularly frequent use are the character archetypes, described below. While most of these words are used only in a scholarly context, their use in everyday language is becoming more and more frequent, either meaning the character the word expresses, or often just simply the noun.

    __A History of Mûtsinamtsys Philosophy__

    There is a blurry distinction between religion and philosophy in Mûtsinamtsys culture. The basic distinction is religion is that which you do while philosophy is that which you believe. Often one is influenced by the other - due to someone believing something, they may choose to act differently. Likewise, observations of their own (and others') actions may cause them to change their beliefs.
    The word ntû'a is used to describe religion - that which causes action. Mûtsitû'a describes philosopy - that which causes belief. There was also the word ttsatû'a, that which causes knowledge, but the philosopher Sútupaj proved that we cannot truly know anything, and so ttsatû'a does not technically exist.

    Most, if not all of these philosophies and theories come from the Mûtsinamtsys and Takuña traditional beliefs, which many thinkers have tried to unite. A brief overview will follow, mainly for the sake of understanding the background to these ideas.
    Ancient Mûtsinamtsys traditions have a basic belief in several gods, with varying names, jurisdictions, and power. These gods are part of the natural world, and are not human. As such, they complement nature, and get along with each other and with nature. The actions of the gods directly influence the happenings in the natural world - natural disasters and the like are seen to be indications of the gods' anger or upset. There is no formalised worship of these gods, but many families will have a shrine to their "favourite" god and make offerings to it. There is also a belief that every being, every entity, has a "spirit" of sorts - but the exact nature of this spirit, and if it varies between species and forms, remains unknown. This spirit remains in existence after we die, but where it goes or what it does is uncertain.
    Some terms we have from the Mûtsinamtsys involving these beliefs include several words for different types of god. We have 'iix, a friendly, benevolent god; tax, a powerful, large god; wenûx, an evil, destructive god; ninak, a god with a strong connection to nature; and nuufik, an ancient god. These words can often be applied several times to the gods, for example one god could both be a nuufik and a tax. Other terms from this time include khuuh, a priest or shaman; kfasa, a temple or altar; and 'itesah, a principle of balance and equality.
    The traditional beliefs of the Takuña involve a "spirit world", an existence that is parallel to this one. Some say the spirit world is good, some say it is evil - but the general agreement is that it is just the same as this world - with both good and evil. As such, evil spirits sometimes cross over from the spirit world and cause misdeeds in this world - and good spirits will sometimes cross over and help people. Nature is almost seen as a single entity, that the Takuña must seek to peacefully coexist with. And so, natural disasters and the like are seen as the Takuña's failure to fully coexist with nature - or the actions of a malevolent spirit (or both).

    Ttsahû was the first major thinker in terms of ntû'a. He classified our actions into four main categories, the names of which are derived from examples of each category:
    That which we must do - sihtû'a (that which causes us to eat)
    That which we should do - ktsantû'a (that which causes us to love)
    That which we should not do - hûsamhtû'a (that which causes us to kill)
    That which we cannot do - gmatû'a (that which causes us to fly)
    He then moved on to suggest that acts that constitute sihtû'a are acts that are necessary for our siim hexa (personal survival) - and by extension, the sesowo' mûtsinamtsys hexa, the survival of all people.
    Acts that constitute ktsantû'a are acts that add to the hexu'i (comfort) of both siim, ourselves, and sesowo', all.
    Likewise, hûsamhtû'a acts detract from the hexu'i, or even the hexa, or either (or both) or yourself and all.
    Gmatû'a are acts that are quite frankly impossible, such as flying, eating your head, and causing earthquakes. Ttsahû suggests that only the gods are able to perform acts of gmatû'a. These acts can either add to or detract from the survival and comfort of people. Hence there is a further distinction between 'i (good) gmatû'a and wen (evil) gmatû'a.
    Ttsahû now creates a hierarchy, where he suggests that above all things, siim hexa is the top priority - personal survival. After that, he places sesowo' hexa, the survival of others. Then siim hexu'i, then sesowo' hexu'i. Thus, you are obliged to act to save the life of another, even if it means your own discomfort. But not if it means the loss of your own life.

    Later philosophers have expanded upon Ttsahû's work in several areas: for example, some have claimed that sesowo' should take precedence over siim. Other, post-Sútapaj thinkers have put siim, in all forms, over any form of sesowo' - as all you can be sure of is your own ntû'a and mûtsitû'a (see below for full explanation of Sútapaj thoughts), the existence of others is questionable. In a similar vein, some have hypothesised that gmatû'a is not entirely proven - just because no-one has yet flown does not mean that we never will. Some thinkers have tried to justify acts of hûsamhtû'a by claiming that in the long run, they will turn out to be ktsantû'a or even sihtû'a. More nature-oriented thinkers have introduced the idea of sesowoku'i hexa - the survival of the universe. Where it fits into the hierarchy generally varies from person to person.

    The next major philosopher was the Takuña Sútupaj. He proved we cannot truly know anything - hence ttsatû'a does not exist. Only what we do (ntû'a) and what we believe (mûtsitû'a) can define who we are, as knowledge is inherently untrustworthy. He introduced the concept of epiphany, which he called nuduuhasihi. He claimed that once someone comes to an epiphany or enlightenment about all knowledge being false, then he can free himself from the realms of this existence and find himself in ifiisana, the spirit world (as per Takuña traditional beliefs).

    Mûsaso, from Duutkejdih, very quickly followed Sútupaj. He likewise had many observations about the world and how we perceive it. Using a vaguely scientific method, he created the study of sesowoku'i - the universe and its contents, from the highest gods to the lowest dust, all were up for analysis and understanding. He then divided this study into three disciplines: tsan, the study of living things; tsa'uuho', the study of the earth and materials; tsa'yjnih, the study of the stars and the cosmos. Where the gods fit into this is unknown, there are various theories on it. Mûsaso, in his experiments into tsa'uuho', concluded that everything is made up of one of three elements: uuho'oh, rock; mimkih, water; hefatsah, fire. This is known as the Mûsaso 3 Element System.

    Rutawká, another Takuña, was a student of Mûsaso, and seeked to create a system similar to the 3 Element system, but for tsan, the study of living beings. He come to the conclusion that there are four main elements, two for plants and two for animals: pannaw, bark, and pudusa'a, leafy flesh; ghi, bone, and pudumasi, bloody flesh. However, they could intermingle - for example, hair is composed of pannaw, and our saliva contains pudusa'a. Likewise, some fruits have pudumasi, and so on. Rutawká named this his 4 Element Biological System.

    Ná'ápíru was a sesowoku'i scholar, who thought the Mûsaso 3 element system was inadequate, especially in light of Rutawká's 4 Element Biological System. How does the biological system fit into Mûsaso's system? Is pudumasi made of uuho'oh, or of mimkih? Or neither? To sort out these errors, he added a new element - sa'usi - probably best translated as "wood" or "biological matter". Ná'ápíru claimed that the 4 biological elements were just forms of sa'usi. He had another observation - that of the clouds, and of wind. How do these phenomena fit into Mûsaso's system? Again, Ná'ápíru conjectured another element - pinetu - "wind", or "air". He dubbed this system "the improved Mûsaso System" or "the Mûsaso System +2", but common discussion led to it being named the Ná'ápíru 5 Element System.

    Kuusunmam was a young Mûtsinamtsys scholar of ntû'a. He rejected Ttsahû's principles of action only for hexa or hexu'i (survival or comfort). Combining his ancestor's beliefs and principles with Sútapaj's concepts of nuduuhasihi and ifiisana, he devised a new, more moral way of looking at the world. He called it pa'en. It involved pleasing and showing reverence to the gods, and also to your own kuu (spirit), which Kuusunmam viewed as a separate entity to yourself - but still an integral part of your personality. To this end, one is to make offerings at the altars, and meditate, awaiting enlightenment. Kuusunmam re-interpreted Sútapaj's understanding of nuduuhasihi as less of an understanding of the true nature of reality, and more of a transcendence into the spirit world, where one would become as a god. Thus is the inherent paradox to Kuusunmam's ideas - that the gods created man, but likewise, man creates gods (through the process of nuduuhasihi). This cyclical theory Kuusunmam saw mirrored in the natural world, where things begin small, grow large, and then decay, becoming small again. This process has lasted, and will last, for 'iinsesowohef (eternity). Kuusunmam claimed that the gods are immortal, due to the nature of the spirit world, but mortal men can die. His views on the afterlife are unknown.

    Ahuñipá was the first major astronomer - he studied tsa'yjnih. He indentified the distinction between huude (stars) and a'usode (planets). He established the movements of the constellations, the planets, and devised a basic paniimuki (calendar).

    Kyywisepu', a student of Ahuñipá, was fascinated with the moon. He inserted months into Ahuñipá's calendar, and made a detailed analysis of the masikyywi' (phases of the moon) and their relation to the mimkikyywi' (tides). He also proved Ahuñipá wrong on one occasion: Ahuñipá claimed the moon to be larger (hence closer to earth) when it is near the horizon. Kyywisepu' proved that this was merely an optical illusion. Kyywisepu' also began the documentation of hefatsammi'i (eclipses), but due to their rarity and lack of reliable historical evidence never came to any conclusions about their nature. Most Mûtsinamtsys believe them to be an act of the gods, like earthquakes and volcanoes.

    Glossary / Summary of terms

    General Ideas:
    ntû'areligion, that which you do
    mûtsitû'aphilosophy, that which you believe
    ttsatû'athat which you know - proven not to exist by Sútapaj
    'iixany friendly, benevolent god
    taxany powerful, large god
    wenûxany evil, destructive god
    ninakany god with a strong connection to nature
    nuufixany ancient god
    khuuha priest or shaman
    kfasaa temple or altar
    'itesahAncient Principle of balance - combination of youngest and oldest, nearest and farthest, biggest and smallest
    Ttsahû Principles:
    sihtû'athat which we must do - (eg that which causes us to eat)
    ktsantû'athat which we must do - (eg that which causes us to love)
    hûsamhtû'athat which we must do - (eg that which causes us to kill)
    gmatû'athat which we must do - (eg that which causes us to fly)
    siim hexapersonal survival
    sesowo' hexasurvival of all
    hexu'icomfort
    sesowoku'i hexasurvival of the universe
    Sútapaj concepts:
    nuduuhasihiepiphany, enlightenment
    ifiisanathe spirit world
    Mûsaso concepts:
    sesowoku'ithe study of the universe
    tsanthe study of living things
    tsa'uuho'the study of the constituent materials of the universe
    tsa'yjnihthe study of the stars and cosmos
    uuho'ohrock, one of the 3 elements
    mimkihwater, one of the 3 elements
    hefatsahfire, one of the 3 elements
    Rutawká concepts:
    pannawbark, one of the 4 biological elements
    pudusa'aleafy flesh, one of the 4 biological elements
    ghibone, one of the 4 biological elements
    pudumasibloody flesh, one of the 4 biological elements
    Ná'ápíru concepts:
    sa'usiwood, or biological matter; one of the 2 additional elements
    pinetuwind, or air; one of the 2 additional elements
    Kuusunmam Principles:
    pa'enthe overarching name of his belief system
    kuuspirit
    nuduuhisitranscendence
    'iinsesowohefeternity
    Ahuñipá observations:
    huudestar
    a'usodeplanet
    paniimukicalendar
    Kyywisepu' observations:
    masikyywi'phases of the moon
    mimkikyywi'ocean tides
    hefatsammi'ieclipse

    __Sample Texts__

    __The North Wind and the Sun__

    Siixihuu'i hefa'i hû'i muuwûsims:
    north_wind.NOM sun.NOM and IMPF.argue.PRES
    The North Wind and the Sun are disputing,

    suutsys ky daxawûs niin nims?
    who.PL.NOM very strong.ACC it.DAT do.PRES
    which one is stronger (than which)?

    Naw hehatams hû'i mûfaw munn tse
    person.NOM IMPF.travel.PRES and clothes.INS wrap.PAST then
    When a traveller, wrapped in a cloak,

    pitih niin mutsysn tsun.
    under it.DAT eye.PL.DAT come.PAST
    came (lit. came under their eyes)

    Jii'i psa',
    it.NOM say.PAST
    They say that

    sii nifoh te' naw mûfawûs tjofoh,
    this.NOM do.FTR so_that man.NOM clothe.ACC drop
    the one who makes the man take off the robe,

    tse sii ky daxawûs niin nims sûû'.
    then this.NOM very strong.ACC it.DAT do.PRES assertion_particle
    then of course it's the one that's stronger.

    Siixihuu'i ky em ni hn.
    north_wind.NOM very forceful do.PAST.ATEL blow.PAST
    Then the north wind blew as hard as he could, (but in vain)

    Ni'uuh naw mûfaw ky em munn,
    wee man.NOM clothe.INS very forceful wrap.PAST
    as the poor wee man wrapped himself up in his cloak just as hard.

    te' siixihuu'i tûk,
    so_that north_wind.NOM cease.PAST
    So the north wind had to stop

    hû'i hefan psa', te' jii'i simtims hefa'i nims.
    and sun.DAT call.PAST, so_that it.NOM see.PRES sun.NOM do.PRES
    and called upon the sun to see what he would do.

    Hefa'i pahsanh hû'i ky hefatsi' hehaf,
    sun.NOM rise.PAST and very hot shine.PAST.IMPF
    Then the sun came up and shone strongly,

    te' nuw mûfawûs tja.
    So_that man.NOM clothe.ACC drop.PAST
    and the man took his cloak off,

    Jii'i dûûxun 'û tos, siisis!
    it.NOM stream.DAT in go.PAST, wash.PAST.IMPF
    and goes into a stream and bathes!

    Siixihuu'i pfasa',
    north_wind.NOM say.PAST.IMPF
    So the north wind says,

    hefa'i ky daxawûs niin nims 'ih.
    sun.NOM very strong.ACC it.DAT do.PRES submission_particle
    oh well, the sun really is the stronger.

    Ky daxa'i ktsantû'a'i hûsamhtû'an nims.
    very strong.NOM ktsantû'a.NOM hûsamhtû'a.DAT do.PRES
    Gentle persuasion is stronger than force. (Lit., that acts that increase people's comfort are more powerful than acts that detract from it)

    __The Wolf and the Goat__

    Senem mwinamm tam hemnam 'un siisims
    goat.NOM grass.ACC big.ACC cliff.ACC on eat.PRES.IMPF
    A goat is grazing on a steep cliff,

    tse jii'i simtims wiatsûw, py'o' niifoh tsxypoh.
    when it.NOM see.PRES wolf.INS, but subjunctive_particle.ATEL hunt.ATEL.FUTR
    when he is seen by a wolf, who would not be able to reach him.

    Te' wiatsu'i senemm piifysa';
    so_that wolf.NOM goat.ACC shout.PAST.IMPF
    So the wolf calls to him,

    tuuh hejm 'as niifoh tsuns te' niifoh khesims phu',
    you.NOM I.ACC at subjunctive_particle come.PRES so_that subjunctive_particle fall.PRES not
    you should come here [lit. at me] so that you would not fall,

    hû'i, hahsantsys hejm 'as nims,
    and, meadow.PL.NOM I.ACC at do.PRES
    and, there are meadows here [lit. at me]

    mwinaw ky hu'wûs nims.
    grass.NOM very soft.ACC do.PRES
    the grass is very tender.

    senem psa', tuuh hejtsa piifysams sûû' phu',
    goat.NOM shout.PAST, you.NOM I.BEN call.IMPF.PRES contradiction_particle not
    The goat calls, you are not calling for my benefit,

    u piifysams te' sipoh!
    but(strong) shout.IMPF.PRES so_that eat.FUTR
    but you are calling so that you can eat!

    __The Lexicon__

    This lexicon is just a list of nouns, adjectives, and verbs. All the particles and stuff are in the above grammar... Also, the philosophy terms have been left out, as they're dealt with above. If you feel like picking them out and putting them into the lexicon, feel free.

    __Nouns__

    __Class I Nouns__

    amakisMáotatşl dramatic term: The Temptress
    asajawseal, sea lion
    awMáotatşl dramatic term: The Beast
    datonetjuhgroup of soldiers
    duxmaster, sensei
    gajawwalrus
    gimsuhsome
    gupisbackstage, out of the reader's knowledge
    hahsanfield, plain, meadow
    hu'ytsimfox
    hy'uunneck
    ipu'asrabbit/hare
    jawsanawMáotatşl dramatic term: The Coward
    jusitsisraven
    Ke'idû'ûs'asthe main island where the majority of the Mûtsinamtsys populace reside
    kohlips (accusative: khûs)
    ksahhand OR year
    kujukawMáotatşl dramatic term: The Tyrant
    kxamnut, seed, egg (something that will grow into another living thing, not intended to be eaten)
    kxanmale relative, brother
    kxasahsixteen
    kxaxasahsixty-four
    kyy'uunorb, gem, jewel
    masyhbarley
    mikajadztin
    mjuxgold
    munawMáotatşl dramatic term: The Fool
    mywyhface, visage (to possess a "good face", as well as meaning physical attractiveness, can also mean that someone is honourable and well-respected. Conversely, a bad face, or even no face entirely, is someone lacking or devoid of any honour at all.)
    njaxrice
    nynohcattle, bull, cow
    pahsand (accusative: phûs)
    petasiron
    phasiisixafahsword
    piipawarm
    psosdate tree
    puhmunheart, breast, chest
    putsysplaywright/composer
    puunnisskin, fur
    pwunmany
    sehsnake, eel, newt
    senemgoat
    so'onwrist
    sufimsinlouse, parasite
    susrat
    tannu'onnut, egg, seed (intended to be eaten)
    tfinhlentil
    tiihensky
    to'e'onbitter vetch
    to'iimchickpea
    tsansister
    tsfangrease, fat, oil, dripping
    tsiinpamshoulder (this word is often used metaphorically - the shoulders are what supports the head and face, which represent honour and dignity. If someone is said to be without shoulders, it means that they have an undignified or dishonourable background.)
    tsjuhmethod
    tsy'uunbeech
    tsysspruce (does not inflect for plural)
    tû'iihbelly
    tutsenemy
    tuufasahcontract, treaty, agreement
    tuunmamsnow, ice
    txûnawthe Thokyunam people
    uhodwiisûhmathematics, the study of numbers
    ûûhoak
    uuhuunwild dog
    uwitsisMáotatşl dramatic term: The Trickster
    wejnihlight in the sky, star, planet, comet
    wuxoslead
    wuxowenixsilver
    xasaxopen desert, scrubland
    xasaxomscamel
    xii'iimbear

    __Class II Nouns__

    dûûwafood seasoning
    enafruit, fleshy egg (like frogspawn), juicy meat
    guunaroot
    hjonaflower (also used to describe a beautiful woman, "she's a flower")
    hnapetal, leaf
    kentsadigestive system, liver
    miipuddles, rain
    miisynarope
    mwinagrass
    naperson
    pannabark
    piimaple
    sexisouth
    siiheart, mind (used metaphorically, does not mean a physical heart)
    siixinorth
    smanaoutcropping or jagged rock
    tsihpawing, fin, arm
    tsjasesame
    tsnatree (any sort - this is the hyperonym of pii, ûûh, 'y etc)
    tssibeast of burden
    tû'eseed, nut, egg (either eaten or grown - this word is the hyperonym of tannu'on and kxam)
    txagirl, child

    __Class III Nouns__

    'faduck
    'hahailstones, sleet, frost, ice
    'itaear
    'ychestnut (the tree)
    anawtypinecone
    datafather
    diintiarable land, potentially farmable
    dûkeisland
    getooth (accusative: gwûs, benefactive: gtsa)
    gekikalong-necked bird
    gubone (nominative: ghi, accusative: ghûs, benefactive: gtsa)
    hefasun OR day OR east
    hexuhappiness, goodness
    ho'obirch
    huuhuyoung (of any animal)
    hyhahorse
    igitsaMáotatşl dramatic term: The Lover
    jasuwypine
    jusatsiowl
    jusistage
    jusijiMáotatşl dramatic term: The Martyr
    jysaactor, performer, singer
    kiispywoman, wife
    ksuwaxewamercenary
    kumywhale, dolphin
    kyMáotatşl dramatic term: The Free
    maMáotatşl dramatic term: The Mother
    matawheat
    metsiflax
    mifarear, tail
    miiwasheep
    mûfaclothing, clothes
    mwamother
    nin dûkeMûtsinamtsys name for a Tukaña island (Awsákuti in Takuña)
    ninawnuMáotatşl dramatic term: The Sage
    nopekuhisage
    nuwamoose
    pajaMáotatşl dramatic term: The Maid
    pawmyaudience, reader
    piputhe unknown
    pxakelihisand dune
    sethat (accusative: swûs)
    sesaother
    siithis (nominative: sii)
    siitsilion
    siixtagunathe mainland where the Takuña live
    sijipuMáotatşl dramatic term: The Hero
    sjojiwitar
    smatsiore
    tatsiMáotatşl dramatic term: The Innocent
    teson, nephew, younger male relative (accusative: twûs, benefactive: ttsa)
    tehead
    tiidaughter, neice, younger female relative
    tsatunash (the tree)
    tsemmiguts, insides
    tsiifinger, thumb
    tsimhotoad, frog, newt
    tsimpuspine
    tssiwell, mine, excavation
    tsuuwastone, rock, boulder
    ttsichild, boy
    ttûkethe old name for the mainland where the Takuña live
    ûxadeer
    wiintincommunal patch of land where a tribe will grow things to contribute to hexu'i (comfort), such as herbs, flowers, and teas (as opposed to a personal piece of land where you grow things for hexa, survival)
    xyyhadonkey
    ymupacharacter

    __Class IV Nouns__

    Dûkejdihthe island where the Mûtsinamtsys met the Takuña violently, land was ravaged, and earthquake destroyed most of island
    Duutkejdihthe small, distant island that holds a small group of Mûtsinamtsys farmers, who speak a strange dialect
    dûûxustream, river
    hefa'iiwest
    hefatsafire
    hemnasteep wall, cliff
    hemputhe front of the body
    iisikijaliger / tigon
    iitidaduattack, onslaught, military advance
    juumeat
    kejdihill
    kuhorn, flute (accusative: khûs, benefactive: ktsa)
    ku'ûwinter
    kuhsicrops
    kuuniiherd, group (of domesticated animals)
    kyywimonth OR moon
    miintsutribe, family
    mimkiwater
    mueye (if someone is said to have good eyes, it means they have good judgement and foresight)
    muuhufungus, mushroom, toadstool (almost all varieties are delicacies)
    nesufuautumn
    niisifaspring
    pahair (accusative: phûs, benefactive: ptsa)
    piitsinose (if someone is said to have a big nose, it means they are famous and well known. Conversely, people with no noses are unknown.)
    piiwufew
    saxisandsnake
    seright (not left)
    sepucloud
    sesowoall
    siileft (not right)
    siihiilizard
    sosiwibeetle
    sysimmahaar, fog, mist (someone is called a sysimma if they have a tendancy to confuse matters; but if someone has a sysimma, it means they have a strong, and often pungent, stench)
    tethree (accusative: thûs, benefactive: ttsa)
    to'uupea
    tsatyashes, smoke, dust
    tsfibranch, twig, stick
    tsiifibird
    tsiitsiblood
    tsiitsifibird of prey, eagle
    tsiixafanail (of fingers and toes)
    tsnohicopper
    tsotsuelbow
    tsufoot
    tsuutsupig
    ttsiyoung man, bachelor
    tuuyou
    twetjuhihafatrade, commerce, exchange
    usutsufir
    ûtanight, dusk
    uuho'odirt, earth
    yy'ywillow

    __Class V Nouns__

    iyjadomesticated dog
    kemmaman, husband
    mefur (accusative: mwûs)
    saanimal, beast (accusative: swûs)
    sysibug
    tseforest, jungle, woodland (accusative: tswûs)
    ûwaa bird's tail, peacock

    __Class VI Nouns__

    duusea
    duutulake
    heI
    huuwind
    kemountain
    kuuspirit (benefactive: ktsa)
    nofasummer
    pepaany small fruit
    psahouse, hut, dwelling place
    pwufish
    sudew
    suuwho, what
    tsudandruff, skin flakes, dust
    tuleg (benefactive: ttsa)
    wakastealth
    wenuevil
    wiatsuwolf

    __Class VII Nouns__

    suuttongue
    ttsknee

    __Irregular Noun__

    ioil

    __Adjectives__

    The vowels in brackets on some of the single-consonant adjectives are to be used when there is no vowel in the inflection they take (if any). So, for example, m(i) would take the inflection -ûs as mûs, but it would take the inflection -n as min.

    'igood, great
    'iinround, circular
    daxastrong
    emforceful
    hafa'red
    hefatsi'hot, uncomfortably humid
    hexhappy, good, pleasurable
    hexafa'cosy, warm, knus
    ho'squishy, ripe, soft
    hû'hard, unripe
    juuti'black
    kejmimti'annoying, irritating
    khaxa'new
    kiiximti'lightweight, small, easy to carry
    ktsû'cool, cold
    m(i)small, mouse-like, delicate
    masi'large, big, wide, too large to hold
    mwasi'long, thin, lanky
    ni'uuhcute, wee, sweet
    nimta'full, drunk
    ningreen
    nuufihused, second-hand, not new
    pa'abeautiful (also used as interjection)
    psohlong, thick
    sisawslippy (smooth) smooth
    snundesirable, important
    swa'unhealthy, ill
    t(a)big, tall, imposing
    t(y)near
    tadistant, far, hard-to-get, daydreaming
    tii'correct, sensible, intelligent
    tjemsfat, obese
    towa'slow, lazy
    tsiindeadly, poisonous
    tsiiwesuwairon
    tsuunboring
    tsuunnvunattractive, ugly
    tunmamwhite
    tuusi'emsslim, stick-like, narrow
    tywa'fast, quick, motivated
    wenbad

    __Verbs__

    __Regular Verb Stems__

    dadkill by punching, often used metaphorically to express great pain
    punch
    hafatsa'burn (a person is said to be burning if they are really angry)
    hexasurvive, live
    hûsamkill
    huxifi'cough, choke
    hwundie (when used intransatively), indirectly cause death (when used transatively)
    idrink, imbibe
    iindalead, herd
    jotsu'cover, drape, surround
    kajohchew, bite
    kantafollow, obey
    kejpunssteal, rob
    muhysloiter, waste time, do very little in particular
    mûsa'disagree, argue
    mûtsi'think, philosophise
    natabetray, murder
    nido, act (Irregular verb: see note in Regular Stems morphology section) OR grow, develop
    ni'uu'pull, tug
    nu'y'secure, make safe (a contract is not signed, it is "secured")
    nusa'lean on, balance
    nysa'give
    osu'prod, stab
    pahsanget up, arise
    safaswell, inflame
    saxahassassinate
    si'eat
    simti'see
    sintsihbear (child)
    sisase'count, list
    so'uusharvest
    suha'hate, dislike
    suhmunsurrender, submit
    sysi'enjoy, play
    tatsuhvomit (to "vomit your nose" is to sneeze)
    taxehfight
    tesa'compare
    tsuhkincut
    tsuhmaslice, split
    tsuntinfarm
    tutsuhspit, salivate
    ûkick
    uunsaflow (when used with a verbal , this verb essentially acts adverbially and means that the verb is being performed "smootly" or "flowingly")
    we'e'masturbate (when used reflexively or intransitively), massage, rub (when used on another person / animal), grasp (when used on an inanimate ) (Irregular verb: glottal stop drops when inflecting for atelic aspect, final /e/ does not shift to /a/)
    wûwi'freeze (of liquids), stop (of everything else)
    ximhunsniff, smell
    ysdig

    __Thematic Verb Stems__

    __Thematic /a/ Stems__

    ewwait
    hafshine
    hatwalk, travel
    haxihlaugh
    johfear
    munnwrap, clothe, tuck in
    sisclean, wash, scrub
    tosgo
    tsahsqueeze (Irregular verb: the first /a/ is lost when inflecting for present and future perfective and atelic)

    __Thematic /i/ Stems__

    hatcarry, hold
    metslisten, hear
    muhtsdiscover, realise
    nitdesire, want
    nûsknit, sew, embroider
    tsammconceal, hide
    tsoxhunt
    tûkcease, stop, desist

    __Thematic /u/ Stems__

    soflift
    sufufsleep (when intransitive), dream (when transitive)
    yywfloat, sail (Irregular verb: does not inflect for atelic aspect)

    __Infixing Verb Stems__

    gwuhinfix /-yko-/lie down, rest
    kfa'infix /-xa-/swallow (to "swallow with the lips" is to suck)
    ktsaninfix /-iiki-/love, admire
    mwuninfix /-ewo-/sit, ponder
    psa'infix /-iify-/shout
    psa'infix /-fa-/say, speak, believe
    ptsuninfix /-uufu-/sow, plant
    tjainfix /-ejta-/drop (Irregular verb: forms atelic by taking infix /-ej-/ (see note in morphology section))
    tsafi'infix /-eta-/swim
    tsfuhinfix /-iitsi-/pick, gather
    tsha'infix /-ejtse-/be fond of, like
    tssamsinfix /-etso-/throw, toss
    tsuhinfix /-eta-/push, move, knock
    tsuninfix /-iisy-/come
    tswi'infix /-etsa-/rub, stroke, wipe
    tsxuhinfix /-ejtse-/choose, select
    ttsa'infix /-eta-/know, truly comprehend
    ttsawa'infix /-sa-/hum, sing
    twininfix /-uusu-/take

    __Infixing Thematic Verb Stems__

    gwimperfective infix /-eko-/, thematic vowel /a/fly
    hnimperfective infix /-uuhu-/, thematic vowel /u/blow, exhale
    khesimperfective infix /-xa-/, thematic vowel /i/trip, fall, slip